In the Volkhov basin there are many swamps everywhere, but most of them in the Volkhov-Lovatskaya lowland. The middle reaches of the Polisti, Redi and Lovati rivers are almost completely boggy. The total area of swamps along the banks of these rivers, including the Polistovsky swamp massif, exceeds 4 thousand km2. The large swamp - Neviy Mokh - is located on the watershed of the Polometi, Moshni and Mayat rivers. Large swamp massifs are located on the watershed of the tributaries of Volkhov and Lake Ladoga, as well as the Luga and Sheloni rivers - for example, Spassky Mosses, Borovsky, Pidebsky, Tesovo-Netylsky. Marshes form not only on the site of dying lakes, but also on land. They occur in interfluve and lowering relief with waterproof soils and soils, as well as on flat watersheds with insufficient drainage. Waterlogging of land can begin after deforestation or a forest fire due to a violation of the water balance, during the construction of dams, if it was carried out without taking into account their supporting effect on the groundwater level. In the Volkhov basin, land swamping is most often found in forests. The onset of the process is indicated by the appearance of a moisture-loving sedge, horsetail and cuckoo flax. Gradually, more and more plants grow, and the trees begin to wither. The spruce is the first to die, followed by the pine. Like lakes, swamps go through a certain development cycle. In everyday life, it is customary to call marshes all “wet” lands, where, by digging with a shovel, you can find peat. Meanwhile, land areas on which the roots of the bulk of the plants still reach the mineral soil are not considered to be marshes. These are just wetlands. Marshes are characterized by their own specific wetland vegetation, which does not need mineral soil, and, of course, the process of peat formation. Young marshes - they are called lowland - are usually grassy. Most often they are smooth swamps, covered with sedge, horsetail, shift, reed and saber, with separate bumps or islets. However, lowland bogs also include swamp birch forests and black alder swamps. In the Volkhov basin, lowland marshes are found in floodplains, along the banks of lakes and simply in depressions, for example, the Bologna Zabolot - a swamp around Lake Bologna, the Sereberskoe swamp - in the floodplain of Lake Ilmen, 1.5 km northwest of the village of Yurievo.
Lowland swamps feed on groundwater. But gradually, with the accumulation of peat, their surface rises and precipitation begins to play an increasingly important role in nutrition. One of the mandatory points of the program in the Czech Republic is Karlstein Сastle The lock was constructed by order of the Czech king Charles the Fourth in 1348. It was built as a summer residence, as well as the Treasury of Imperial regalia and Holy relics. It is worth a visit.